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Keynes established that both the short-run and long-run performance of a capitalist system depend upon investment, but he failed to arrive at an alternative to the neoclassical theory of investment. Professor Gordon demostrates that the extension of neoclassical theory to deal with uncertainty and risk aversion is based upon a string of assumptions which are empirically false. The competitive stationary state, the foundation for the neoclassical theory of a capitalist system, is shown to be unfeasible because it results in a very high probability of bankruptcy at the micro level and the system's early collapse on the macro level. Capitalists seeking long-term survival are shown to be subject to a growth impreative, to the pursuit of monopoly power, and to a concern for financial policy. Later sections of the book discuss the consequences of this behaviour for the short-run fluctuations and the long-run development of capitalist systems.
Written primarily for business managers and government officials, this is a comprehensive and extremely timely handbook on how to successfully initiate and implement joint ventures and direct investments in China. The authors combine in one volume an appreciation of the nuances faced in the negotiation of U.S.-Chinese joint ventures, an examination of the investment environment in China and an assessment of its past traditions, present policies, and emerging problems. Case studies of a variety of actual joint ventures are especially valuable for readers involved in or planning to open negotiations in China. Several chapters assess the impacts of the events in Tianamen Square on foreign direct investment in the country. The book opens with two chapters which examine the reasons for China's open policy and the responses of foreign investors to the new policy. A group of chapters then explores the country's investment, cultural, and legal environments and their likely impacts on joint venture negotiations. Turning to an examination of Chinese markets and production capabilities, the authors assess consumption patterns, decision making, customer/supplier relations, local sourcing problems, transportation, the availability of skilled labor, management, and R&D. They go on to analyze the contributions of foreign direct investment, including the role of transnational corporations, and present a step-by-step guide to negotiating a joint venture in China and implementing the agreement reached. Finally, the authors look at prospects for development and modernization in China, particularly in terms of the trend towards recentralization following the Tianamen Square upheaval. In addition to business development managers, students in international business programs will find Direct Investment and Joint Ventures in China an indispensable resource.
Investment Arbitration is a multi-billion dollar venture. It is an area of international dispute resolution, which has undergone tremendous growth in recent years and resulted in the signature of thousands of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) between foreign states and several Multilateral Investment Treaties (MITs). Numerous disputes involving these instruments are resolved through international arbitration. Arbitral tribunals have rendered many Awards ordering the payment of large sums of money. This handbook seeks to provide an explanatory introduction into the area of investment arbitration, differentiating it from commercial arbitration and state-to-state arbitration. It examines the legal framework and the general course of an international investment arbitration. In particular, it focuses on the standards of protection in international investment agreements, the concept of jurisdiction in international investment arbitration and the arbitral Award, including the notions of recognition, enforcement and execution. Moreover, this cutting-edge publication contains relevant and recent case law in the area and deals with contemporaneous issues such as the ongoing controversy regarding the future of Intra-EU BITs and Free Trade Agreements as well as the link between vulture funds and investment arbitration. The handbook aims at arbitrators, lawyers, practitioners, academics, students and at everyone with an interest in international investment arbitration. It is written by Johan Billiet in collaboration with Maria Elenora Benini, Cari-Dee Le, Amelie Noilhac and Cecile Oosterveen. [Subject: Finance Law, Arbitration Law, Commercial Law, International Law]
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